According to the Knowledge Product (KP) studies commissioned by the Department of Environmental Affairs (DEA), landfill gas (LFG) to energy is the process of using the energy of biogases such as methane gas produced by anaerobic biodegradation in a landfill for heating or generating electricity. Waste to energy (WtE) is a system of energy recovery and consists of the pipelines and pumps to extract gas, a flare and the plant to harness the heat or to generate the electricity (for example gas engine or turbine). Most WtE processes produce electricity and/or heat directly through combustion, or produce a combustible fuel commodity, such as methane, methanol, ethanol or synthetic fuels. Use was made of the manual provided by GreenCape and approved by the Western Cape Department of Economic Development and Tourism, ‘Towards integrated municipal waste management: technical guide for technology identification and screening for integrated waste management planning’.
Main licence requirements for landfill gas to energy CLICK HERE [Insert link to legislation table] Advantages:
NERSA and ESKOM are serious impediments to the sale of electricity because Power Purchase Agreements need to be negotiated.
Read More (https://www.iea.org/media/technologyplatform/workshops/southafricabioenergy2014/Sitevisit_Durban_LandillGas_to_Electricity_22_Nov.pdf) (www.cityenergy.org.za/uploads/resource_340.pdf) In 2002 the World Bank approached the South African Government with a view to implementing a Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) renewable energy project in South Africa. Through the University of Kwa-Zulu Natal (UKZN), Durban Solid Waste (DSW) was approached to initiate the technology development in July 2003, and subsequently the first landfill gas to electricity project in Africa was developed. The project was split into two components: part 1 was a 1-MegaWatt electricity (MWe) installation at the Mariannhill Landfill site with a 500-kiloWatt electricity (kWe) installation at La Mercy Landfill Site. The latter project proved to be a failure and the gas engine was transferred to the Bisasar Road Landfill. This engine formed part of part 2 which was a larger 6.5 MWe installation at Bisasar Road Landfill site. Mariannhill landfill site: the project was a collaboration with the World Bank’s Proto Carbon Fund which purchases all carbon emission reductions (CERs) that are generated. A total of 180,864 CERs have been issued, with the plant generating 24,911 MWh of electricity, saving the eThekwini Municipality R10,400 million. Bisasar road landfill site: An Emissions Reductions Purchase Agreement (ERPA) is in place for CERs produced from landfill gas captured at Bisasar Road. To date, 815,344 CERS have been issued, and sold to Nedbank. The plant has generated 239,638 MWh of electricity, therefore saving the municipality R95,300 million. When the projects first commenced, there was no expertise in the country to guide or assist in decision making. Therefore, the decision made was to own the project and to tender for the expertise required. Should carbon tax become a reality in South Africa, these projects could become extremely profitable and a source of revenue income for municipalities. As this is a substantial investment for the municipality, a dedicated project manager has been appointed to manage the project. As the work is specialised, the municipality uses a quality-based approach to the tenders where the companies tendering first have to show that they have the expertise, and have to obtain a minimum score before the issue of price is considered. Many skills are required to run a successful project and therefore seven separate contractors have been appointed. The appointed contractors’ activities include construction and pipe laying, engine maintenance and repair, gas field management, air quality monitoring, data management for Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), electrical maintenance, and supplying equipment and spares. In 2014 the total capital cost to date was R114 million with an annual operating cost of R12 million. At that time the landfill gas to electricity (LG2EP) project generated R48 million worth of electricity and generated in excess of 600,000 carbon credits.
Mariannhill Landfill gas to electricity project – 1MWe plant
Bisasar Road Landfill gas to electricity project - 6.5 MWe plant
Read more (www.cityenergy.org.za/uploads/resource_338.pdf) In September 2014, Ekurhuleni Metropolitan Municipality commissioned a 1 MW landfill gas to electricity generation unit at the Simmer and Jack landfill site in Germiston, Gauteng. The landfill receives approximately 430,000 tonnes of waste per year. This project has the potential to reduce electricity purchases from Eskom by 7 GWh/year. As of 22 October 2014, the generator has been operational for 727 Hours and 594,600 kWh of electricity had been generated. The gas capture has also greatly improved local air quality and environmental conditions of the communities living alongside or nearby the site. The municipality is planning to add additional electricity generation capacity at the Simmer and Jack landfill site and in other landfill sites in their area of jurisdiction.
Ekurhuleni Metro Simmer & Jack Landfill - 1 MWe plant
Read more (www.infrastructurene.ws/2014/01/24/joburg-terms-landfill-gas-info-electricity/) Robinson Deep has 3 MWe installed and was due to start electricity generation at the end of 2016. Goudkoppies has 2 MWe installed. This site was due to start up in February 2017. Marie Louise will have 2 MWe. This site was due to start up in June 2017.
Johannesburg Metro Goudkoppies
According to the Knowledge Product (KP) studies commissioned by the Department of Environmental Affa...